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Wayamba Journal of Animal Science

Cardiac lymphoma in a German Shepherd Dog - A case study.

E. R. K. V. Edirimanne, W. M. P. D. Ekanayake and N. M. T. Anupama
WJAS ID 1546248299 Date : 2018-12-31 Volume : 10

Cardiac lymphoma as a cause for pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade is uncommon in dogs. Diagnosis and treatment of cardiac lymphoma is challenging, with guarded prognosis. A German shepherd dog (GSD) was presented with enlarged abdomen, reduced appetite, dyspnoea and nocturnal coughing. Alternative pulse, hyporesonant thorax, ascites, hepato and splenomegaly were found in examination. Normal complete blood count (CBC), elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and albumin (Alb) levels in biochemical panel and microfilaria (Mf) in blood were identified. Pleural effusion, pulmonary edema and cardiomegaly in thoracic radiography, ascites in abdominal ultrasonography, pleural effusion, fibrinous adhesions, severe pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade in echocardiography were identified. Also, free-floating structures, hypoechoic masses were seen adhered to the myocardium, pericardium and base of the aorta in echocardiography. Pericardial fluid analysis identified microfilaria (MF) and lymphoma cells. Levemisole was given to eliminate MF and cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone (COP) chemotherapy protocol was initiated against lypmphoma. By day 3 of levamisole treatment, MF in blood and pericardial effusion was negative and by week 3 of chemotherapy, pericardial effusion and the lymphoma were absent. Meanwhile, the patient developed Babesia gibsoni infection and immune mediated haemolytic anemia (IMHA), treated with imidocarb dipropionate and a higher prednisolone dose. A day after the week 5 of chemotherapy, sudden dyspnoea and pleural effusion were developed and the patient succumbed. The clients recalled lapse in oral dosing of chemotherapy during the last week. COP chemotherapy is effective against cardiac lymphoma but the schedule must strictly be adhered. Concurrent IMHA and haemoparasitism may complicate the clinical outcome.

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